Offering Students Effective Feedback


A few years ago, one of my policies was that everything my students did in class “would be handed in for a grade”. Well, as you can imagine that got overwhelming pretty fast. By the end of October I was ready to give up. (I stuck it out for the rest of the semester for the sake of consistency, but it wasn’t pretty–for me. If I learned anything from that year it was how to be an efficient grader.) I see now that such a policy was a response to students’ “laziness” instead of a viable teaching/learning strategy. So I never did it again. Instead, I started giving feedback.

The importance of feedback (and formative assessment) cannot be denied. I find that I prefer to offer my students feedback as opposed to grading everything they do, and, in turn, I find that my students really appreciate it. Throughout this year, I have “given out” less grades and more feedback, and my students have benefited from it. At first they all wanted to know, “what is my grade?”.  I told them that their work on such formative assignments were practice for the summative assessment and that practice isn’t graded.  They didn’t buy it at first, but once they realized that I was giving them information that could help them improve, they warmed up to the idea. It’s still a work in progress–the first marking period I didn’t have many grades in the book and our mandatory school assessments made their grades plummet–I spent an inordinate amount of time feeling guilty that my best student didn’t make the honor roll because of my class–but I worked it out as the year progressed. I also learned some important rules about feedback.  I have condensed them into an acronym (because that is what we do in education) to make it a bit easier to remember.

Think CUTS for Clear, Useful, Timely, and Specific:


  • Choose the best mode possible according to the student
    • written or oral
    • Avoid using vocabulary and syntax at a student’s frustration level
  • Focus: what is the content of your feedback?
    • Task-focused: includes correct v. incorrect, quality of the work, criteria referenced, need for information, neatness, format.
    • Process-focused: includes information about how student approaches the task, the relationship between what a student did and the quality of their performance, offering alternative strategies
  • Use a rubric or scale and make connections distinct
  • Be objective
    • Reduce “I” statements
    • Offer suggestions and considerations



  • Feedback should be info that connects to what students already know and takes them from that point to the next level and so on.
  • Decide on Type: individual or small/large/whole group
  • Give feedback on the most important targets
    • Constructive and helpful
    • Identify strengths and weaknesses
  • Ask questions to help students synthesize info



  • Return assignments with feedback ASAP
    • Students must still be mindful of the topic
    • Students must still feel the drive to work toward the learning objective or goal
  • Offer immediate oral responses if you can.



  • To the task, process, assignment, individual
    • Suggest how to improve the task and process
  • Use details when describing why something is effective or why something needs improvement
    • Always consider “because”
  • Use specific language that relates to the learning target.

Remember, there are many ways to give feedback, and I am talking about one specific way: through practice assignments such as rough drafts, or skills practice.  You need to find what works for you, but I think (and hope) this is a good starting point.  Happy Feedback-ing!   


One thought on “Offering Students Effective Feedback

  1. Pingback: Reso-and Revo-lutions for 2015 | The Education Conversation

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